Category Archives: Interviews

Chasing Ice Documentary Filmmakers

Imagine yourself in conversation with someone who is important to you. But there’s a problem: your important someone doesn’t entirely agree with what you are saying.

You provide facts to appeal to their mind and emotions to appeal to their heart. You try humor. Perhaps you even use the magical art of active listening, then reframe the issue to reintroduce this important someone to why your point is well, right. You try and you try, but the resistance is still there. Nothing and no one has moved despite your words of wisdom and wit.

What do you say then? Perhaps you say one of these well-worn lines: “Ok. See for yourself.” “Seeing is believing.” “Can you see my point?” Or, our favorite, the simple plead: “Seeeee!”

Notice all statements include a variation on the word “see.” Seeing transitions you to a world where words aren’t needed to produce agreement. Seeing puts us in awe of feats of strength and wonders of the world. Seeing creates a lasting impression. Seeing a wrong makes us upset. Seeing something worth protecting makes us want to act. Seeing explains what words often fail to say.

The team documenting an Antarctic crevasse.

Seeing is the visual side of saying something. And, if you’re going to say something – whether with images or words – why not say it well? Our last post and this next one take you to places that you might not otherwise see. These interviewees wanted you to see what climate change looks like. These folks spoke volumes with the visuals they created. In doing so, they put climate change in plain view for all of us.

As we head into the long, hot days of summer, today’s post takes you to a much cooler place. A place you may never see except through the work of Jeff Orlowski. In the documentary Chasing Ice, he takes all of us to a place where glaciers live. We welcome him to the blog and thank him for sharing his thoughts about showing climate change through time-lapse images.

How did your team first come up with the idea to take time-lapse images of the glaciers? 

It was originally James’s idea, the main character of the film. Back then (in 2006-2007), no one was really talking about how glaciers were changing. It was very insightful of him to think of that. A mutual friend connected us and suggested that we meet.

The project seems like a great way to help the public visualize the impact of climate change. What do you think are the most compelling images? 

The whole objective for us was to visualize climate change. We were talking about how invisible air is causing change all the time. Because air is invisible, it’s easy to dismiss it. We wanted to root climate change in something that the brain could understand. When you have visual imagery of the change occurring, it becomes more evident what is going on. Scientists are very rational. Sometimes facts and figures do not make the heart connection and as a species we are very emotionally driven. Seeing the glaciers change, we discovered that it was a very clear way to get people to emotionally connect with the story. Our team found that many audience members felt the clips taken during the calving event were the most compelling.


Filmmaker scaling an ice wall

What was surprising in the implementation of the project? 

In the editing of the film, we created lots of versions that didn’t work. We tested out versions of the film with friends, strangers – to all sorts of people – to get feedback on it and to see what they liked and didn’t like. We wanted to know what they didn’t understand, what didn’t make sense, and we also wanted to know what was clear. Due to showing some of these earlier versions and getting feedback, we found out what was working and we adjusted. Originally we were making a film that was more of a biography of James, his past work and approach to photography as whole. Over time, as we were screening that version, people wanted to know more about the ice and the specific project. We realized that telling the story of James was missing this bigger story, so we shifted it away from biography to the story of the Extreme Ice Survey.

Between starting up the project and releasing Chasing Ice, what were some of the major obstacles and how did you overcome those? 

For me, the biggest challenge was the editing. This was my first film that I worked on. I was learning how to tell a feature-length story. I had done short films before, but the process of a short film and a feature film are very different.

Was there any part of the project that went easier than you anticipated?

Ha, no.

What impact did you want the video to have and is it having that impact? Why do you think that is?

It’s hard to go in with a goal for impact. We had hoped that it would make a dent and influence people’s perspective on the issue. The issue of climate change is so contentious and it really shouldn’t be. The data is so clear. As a society, we are really setting ourselves up for failure by not listening to the scientists. We know that we are jeopardizing the ecosystems that keep us alive. By not listening more to the scientists, we are threatening the ecosystems that keep us alive.

James Balog capturing the erosion of glaciers

Looking back, what – if anything – would you have done differently? 

I would have raised more money earlier. I try not to look at things as mistakes or regrets; we just plowed forward with what we thought we needed to do to in order to create success. When we started making the film, its funding was mostly from friends and family. I was a first-time filmmaker. I didn’t have a big reputation or the connections that go with that. Slowly, we collected more and more people with experience and great insight. It took a lot of passion and dedication. Some of the most important people were our producers. They were some of the earliest people that saw the potential for the film. They saw there was something there and that it could be something great. They believed in the film.

How did you pick the name Chasing Ice?

That’s a funny question. There’s a debate as to who was the first to come up with the name. “Chasing” is a theme that comes up throughout the film. At some point someone put the two concepts of the film together, Chasing and Ice.

What’s James up to now?

He’s continuing to document how humans are changing the planet. Extreme Ice Survey is also currently installing and monitoring time-lapse cameras around the world.

When you show this movie to the public, what kinds of reactions do you get? What do they respond most to? What are some of the most interesting responses? 

I think everyone’s response was incredibly powerfully, especial in reaction to the time-lapses and the calving events of the glaciers. It’s a natural phenomenon that very few of us get to see. When you see it, it changes how you think about the world. Seeing is believing, but the first step is understanding. Audiences will say they were blown away by how powerful the images were. We found watching a glacier fall apart was more impactful then listening to someone tell you facts about glaciers.

Eroding glaciers in Antarctica

What do you think people would like to see more of in regard to climate change?

There is still a lot of confusion about how the planet is changing due to human action. We need to continue to collect more imagery that helps the public understand what’s happening and how to take action and find solutions.

Are there any other visual projects about climate change that you would like our readers to know about?

Readers can continue to follow the work of James Balog’s organization Earth Vision Institute as he continues to take powerful imagery of our changing planet.


Seeing Sea Level Change

If you’ve been waiting for the answer to last week’s riddle, the time has come. What is east and royal and tidal all over? The King Tides Trail, of course!

The American playwright Wilson Mizner famously said, “Art is science made clear.” There may be nothing that captures this sentiment for the science of climate change as accurately as the King Tides Trail project in Portland, Maine. Created by Jan Piribeck, an Associate Professor of Art at the University of Southern Maine, the King Tides Trail project is an interactive art piece that wraps 4 miles around the Portland peninsula and uses markers and geographic data points to show the anticipated impacts to the city from a changing climate. The project identifies areas that would be flooded by rising tides in the next 50-100 years and illustrates this hard-to-grasp concept of sea level change in a visually clear way.

Today Jan speaks to us about her work on the King Tides Trail project. For over a decade Jan has focused her work on a series of projects that fuse Art and Geographic Information Systems. Jan and her team unveiled the King Tides Trail Project on December 8, 2014. The project is meant to inspire awareness about the impacts of climate change to the Portland community as well as the rest of the world. We welcome her insights about visual communications for climate change issues.

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission exposes regular flooding problems in Portland, Maine. Source: Aaron Godfrey Parker

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Aaron Godfrey Parker

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Who first came up with the idea?

The idea came from the process of observing high tides and their impact on my neighborhood in Portland, Maine. I live in part of the city that just a little over a century ago was covered by waters from the Back Cove, a mile-wide tidal basin located nearby. About five years ago I began noticing areas that flooded regularly during high, high tides. At first I thought this was rainwater, but upon further investigation found it to be brackish water that pushes its way up through storm drains. I decided to start working with students at the University of Southern Maine (USM) to observe and record these tidal inundations, which led to a study of sea level change. Living on a peninsula offered the opportunity to observe a number of sites that are vulnerable to rising tides. Many of these are located along two popular cycling/walking trails in Portland, and it made sense to mark these sites and create a pathway around the shoreline of the city for those who want to witness the impacts of the highest tides of the year, also known as King Tides.

How many people were involved?

A core group of 15 students was involved in creating a temporary installation marking the location of a 3’ sea level line and the King Tides Trail. The students also created a Google Map of the trail showing points of interest and the trail’s proximity to the 3’ sea level line.

The following students gave generously of their time, energy and talent to the development of the Portland King Tides Trail: Nicholas Barter, Nathan Broaddus, Amber Desrosiers, Marina Douglas, William Freeman, Ken Gross, Emma Hazzard, Richard Hudon, Abigail Johnson-Ruscansky, Ryan Jordan, Kristyn Peterson, Caitlin Puchalski, Samantha Quimby, Lisa Willey, Mike Witherell

Vinton Valentine, Director of the USM/GIS Lab and Marina Schauffler of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) King Tides Project provided valuable assistance throughout the project.

Click on the image to view an interactive Google map of the King Tides Trail.

Click on the image to view an interactive Google map of the King Tides Trail.

What was your role?
I was the project director; this involved organizing and presenting lectures to orient the students to data about sea level rise (SLR) and to various forms of installation art. I facilitated discussions and activities leading to the design and implementation of the King Tides Trail and was the liaison with the city of Portland and the GOM Council and King Tides Project.

The project seems like a great way to help the public visualize the impacts of rising sea levels. Please explain the method you used in this project.

We used over 2,000 red surveying whiskers pounded into the ground with 60-penny nails to delineate and make visible a portion of the 3’ SLR line. The space we marked is located in an empty urban lot slated for real estate development. We used GIS (Geographic Information System) mapping tools to project the line, and loaded this data into a hand-held GPS (Geographic Positioning System) receiver. This enabled us to walk and mark the line in physical space. We also used GIS to map locations for 28 Beacons (blue wooden stakes topped with solar lamps) along the King Tides Trail. The Beacons marked the trail and sites along the trail where tidal changes can be easily observed. Additionally, circular sidewalk graphics were created to mark locations vulnerable to flooding. Some of the sites were given names such as Knudsen Pond and Somerset Lagoon as a way to form a narrative around SLR in Portland. Hand-painted maps have been created to document the whereabouts of these locations.

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Abigail Krolak

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Abigail Krolak

Do you have other ideas for how to visualize rising sea level?

Yes. Each student came up with a proposal for an installation. We couldn’t create them all, but they were all compelling. For example, one student proposed compacting trash collected from beaches to make large sculptural cubes that could be used to construct sea walls. The absurdity of the idea is part of its strength. These sea walls wouldn’t be functional except to point out the excessive waste that is contributing to the demise of our atmosphere and in turn leading to accelerated sea level change. All of the students were inspired by Tsunami markers, which are stone slabs used to mark where Tsunami waves have occurred. The markers warn against building on these spots. Another student proposed a large-scale cast concrete sculpture inscribed with wave patterns to be installed at the portal of the King Tides Trail. There were many more ideas that deserve future consideration.

How did your team decide on this method?
We wanted to do something where the entire class could be engaged in the making, and we had several factors such as durability and visibility that factored into the decision to use the marking whiskers, stakes and sidewalk graphics. Due to the collaborative nature of the project, students wanted to pick materials that were representative of the entire group and not reflective of just one aesthetic voice. The materials chosen borrowed from the visual vocabulary of surveying tools, which went along with the idea of the students being environmental and cultural surveyors and workers. We wore hard hats with HAT (highest annual tide) at the work site.

Have any other coastal cities in the U.S. undertaken this type of art project.

Volunteers installing red whiskers along Portland high tide line during an early stage of the project. Source: University of Southern Maine.

Volunteers installing red whiskers along Portland high tide line during an early stage of the project. Source: University of Southern Maine.

There is a really interesting project called HIGHWATERLINE that does workshops and public art to mobilize communities to develop resiliency to climate change. They do work in cities throughout the country.

Did you need permission from the City of Portland for your project?


If so, how easy/hard was it?

The city of Portland was supportive, but there were protocols that took time to work through. This involved things like dig safe permits and approvals by the Portland Public Art student art review committee. The class made a formal proposal that outlined materials, maintenance and dismantling plans and so on. Everything had to be approved before final permits were issued.

Were there any particularly challenging obstacles?

We were working under a compressed timeframe and the protocols seemed prohibitive at times, but in the end the cooperative and flexible attitudes of the city officials and persistence on our part helped assure that the project would happen.

You received funding through the Limulus Fund at the Maine Community Foundation. How did you go about pitching this idea to the foundation?

The grant was submitted through the Gulf of Maine Council on the Maine Environmental Climate Network. They did the pitch and were successful.

Source: Press Herald

Source: Press Herald

How competitive was the process?

I’m not sure, but I think the review is quite thorough. Proposals have to show merit and be viable for completion.

How has the public reacted to the project? What have been some of the most interesting responses?

There was interest on the part of the media. The project was covered well in local newspapers and was featured on Maine Public Radio. Many people reached out to tell me they enjoyed reading and hearing about the project, and those who jog along the King Tides Trail have mentioned seeing the glowing Beacons at dusk.

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Riley Young Morse

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Riley Young Morse

Do you think the project will prompt the city to take action to mitigate against the rising sea levels?

The scenario of a 3’ rise is more severe than what the city is officially planning for. The apartment complex to be developed in the empty lot where we marked the 3’ SLR line has been approved, and there are plans to elevate the surrounding roads by 2’ to accommodate rising tides. This is in accordance with current flood maps; however, the question intimated by the King Tides Trail is, will this be enough? The installation was informed by the research of Maine State Geologist Peter Slovinsky, who points out that the latest scientific predictions for SLR are 1’ by 2050, 2’-3’ but potentially more by 2100. The State of Maine has adopted 2’ as a middle-of-the-road prediction by the year 2100 for areas with regulated Coastal sand Dunes. Slovinsky suggests examining scenarios of 1’, 2’, 3.3’ and 6’ on top of the highest annual tide. These scenarios relate to the National Climate Assessment, and also correspond well with evaluating potential impacts from storm surges that may coincide with higher tides today. The aim of the King Tides Trail was to illuminate these potential impacts through artistic visualizations and processes.

The city is aware of the work we did, but there is no indication that the project resulted in specific action. Information about the trail will continue to be distributed through a website and digital database that are due for publication this week! Communication and collaboration with the city to raise awareness of SLR was one of the goals of the King Tides Trail, and headway was made in this regard.

How would downtown Portland be impacted if sea levels did, in fact, rise three feet by 2100?

There would be a dramatic impact on waterfront properties and on some locations that are currently not considered to be waterfront properties. One of these would be the parking lot in front of my condominium; I live not far from the downtown, and my parking spot would be under water given a 3’ rise.

Red whiskers placed in Portland's Bayside neighborhood identify where the tide line would be if sea level rose by three feet.Source: The Forecaster

Red whiskers placed in Portland’s Bayside neighborhood identify where the tide line would be if sea level rose by three feet. Source: The Forecaster

What are some things the city can start doing today to prepare?

About a year and a half ago the Portland Society for Architecture hosted a symposium called Waterfront Visions 2050. They brought in experts on sea level adaptation to address concerns about Commercial Street in Portland’s Old Port district. It was an incredible program that included an exhibition and public forum for sharing ideas about what to do to prepare. There are many innovative ways to address SLR. The important thing is not to ignore that it is happening and not to panic and make unwarranted choices about vacating properties.

Have you thought about doing a similar King Tides-type project in another coastal area? Or whatever other projects are you pursuing at this time?

There is great potential to expand the King Tides Trail beyond the Portland peninsula. This summer I will focus my energies on extending the project into Casco Bay. Ideally, I would like to travel to coastal communities throughout the Gulf of Maine and along the US coastline to do similar projects.

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To learn more about the King Tides Trail project, visit You can also learn more about “Envisioning Change,” an art collaboration in Casco Bay to visualize climate change impacts, of which the King Tides Trail project was a part, by visiting the University of Southern Maine Digital Humanities program at

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Kristyn Peterson

King Tides Trail 2014 Photo Contest submission. Source: Kristyn Peterson

Back to the Future, Portland Style

There are times in life that in order to talk about the present or the future, you have to talk about the past. In this case, that past was 1993.

1993 was a year of contrasts. On the good side, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat signed a peace agreement on the White House lawn; on the bad side the first World Trade Center bombing happened. The treaty that set up the European Union took effect and Bill Clinton signed NAFTA, but Bosnia and Herzegovina broke out into war. NASA launched the space shuttle Endeavor 354 miles into the atmosphere to fix an optical flaw for the Hubble Space telescope, but here back at home the first bag-less vacuum cleaner was considered innovative. Our romantic side was captured in film with the Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan love affair in Sleepless in Seattle, but their squeaky clean romance was balanced by Robert Redford and Demi Moore’s Indecent Proposal. And, if you were listening to the radio – as that is what we listened to then – music of the carefree wanna-be Caribbean reggae group UB40 mixed with the heavy-hearted, rainy day, garage band “grunge music” of Seattle’s Nirvana.

Susan Anderson. Source: The City of Portland, Oregon

Susan Anderson. Source: The City of Portland, Oregon

It’s hard to make sense of a year like that.

But that same year something was happening in Portland, Oregon that made complete sense. There, our interviewee for this issue’s blog was helping to create the Global Warming Reduction Strategy along with 11 other international cities. In doing so, they laid the groundwork for all climate action plans to come. We’re pleased to introduce you to the Director of Planning for Portland Oregon now and Energy Policy staffer back in 1993, Susan Anderson. She and a group of other leaders looked ahead of the curve to see the negative impacts increasing carbon emissions would have on our world and went into action. She hasn’t slowed down since. We welcome her insights.

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Take us back to the early 90’s. What was happening for you in Portland?

I was hired to be an energy policy person for the City of Portland’s new Energy Office. Previously, I had been an energy consultant on my own, and working on energy issues was a new arena for cities. We were seeing the impacts of an unsustainable energy policy at the national level, and thought we should do something locally. So, I worked to secure contracts and grants to grow the Energy Office because the City had very limited funds for the office itself. We began to collaborate on the issue of global warming with someone from the State Energy Office, who was on loan to us for two days a week.

We put on a major conference for our first big public event on global warming, funded by a variety of local companies and utilities. It was very much a grass roots process and couldn’t have happened if we hadn’t had political support and leadership.

How has the political will changed in Portland over the past 20 years?

Photo Credit: Evogreen Sustainable Energy Solutions

Photo Credit: Evogreen Sustainable Energy Solutions

Back in the 90’s, very few people were interested in the issue of global warming. While scientists talked about climate change as a reality, it hadn’t risen to be a key public issue. Obviously, that’s changed more recently. Political leadership has evolved a lot like public opinion has evolved.

While there were just a few people involved locally two decades ago, as public awareness of climate change grew, so did consensus on the need to act.

Fortunately, the things public officials want to work on anyway – improving affordability, reducing costs for businesses, energy independence, neighborhoods walkability and quality of life — also reduce carbon emissions. As leaders began to recognize these “co-benefits” over time, Portland was in a position to embrace its role as a leader on climate change, while saving residents and businesses money. Creating good public policy and programs that addressed climate change became the norm.

Portland was one of 12 local governments internationally to jointly develop local global warming solutions in the early 1990’s. How did this come about?

Fresh in my role at the City of Portland’s Energy Office, I believed that global warming was a reality. Soon, I connected with two city council members, who also supported action. We saw a void of leadership at the national level and not much action at the state level either. However, a few other North American and European cities were beginning a dialogue. We asked, “What if we pulled together all these cities that were thinking about this?” The EPA and City of Toronto together provided grant funding that allowed us to set up a two-year process to focus on local solutions to global warming with these cities.

In those two years, we came up with the first methodology for how to calculate carbon emissions at the local level and answer the question, “What does global warming mean for a local city government and for an entire community?”

Amazingly, the categories we came up with then are still the categories that have held true for climate action today, such as switching to renewable energy, focusing on energy efficiency, integrating transportation and land use.

How was this strategy introduced to the community?

Photo Credit: The Oregonian

Photo Credit: The Oregonian

The first thing I did was a needs assessment to identify potential partners, such as elected officials, neighborhoods, businesses, environmental advocates or social advocates.

We talked with dozens of individuals to find out what was important to them.  I probably had about 50 meetings, as well as an advisory committee of residents, businesses, utilities and other stakeholders. After we really listened, we were able to bring in a plan that addressed our desire to reduce carbon emissions, but also showed them how it helped them meet their goals. My advice is always to meet people where they’re at…

After many smaller meetings, the EPA paid for the international group to come to Portland for a five-day work session and the “international global warming conference,” which was well received and got a lot of national coverage.

For the first decade working on this, I generally would not talk much about global warming.  I talked about the things that regular people care about – air quality, improving their neighborhoods and jobs. And that’s mostly still what I talk about now.

The message is this, “You don’t have to believe in this, but here are the good results that can happen if we take action.”  That’s what people care about. It’s only been in the last five years or so where the increased sense of urgency for action on climate change has become a motivating factor for people.

What were some major milestones achieved in the two decades since Portland adopted its first Climate Action Plan?

Bike Lanes in Portland, Oregon

Bike Lanes in Portland, Oregon. Photo Credit: The Portland Mercury

With advocacy from city and many other groups, the State of Oregon adopted a renewable portfolio standard to require more electricity be generated from renewable energy.

We added hundreds of miles of bicycle lanes. Today, over 6 percent of Portlanders ride their bikes to work, compared with less than 1 percent on average in other cities.

We have focused on making our own city facilities more efficient. The city is saving more than $6 million a year due to investments in energy efficiency.

We launched Solarize Portland, a grass roots effort to help a neighborhood band together to do one large bid for solar installations so they could get a better price. That resulted in a huge shift with thousands of homes and businesses installing solar.

Fifteen years ago, we started a green building program that provided technical assistance for the community and adopted requirements for city buildings. Many cities provide some kind of incentives. The whole green building industry took off very early here, in terms of LEED Gold and Platinum. These designations in Portland are now interchangeable with the words “quality building.”

We launched Clean Energy Works, which has since spun off to be its own non-profit. Initially, this was funded by the federal government to create energy efficiency demonstration projects for single-family homes in several cities.

The program was a one-stop shop: Home owners could call a number, promptly get an audit of their home, have energy upgrade options explained to them, and be connected directly to high-quality private contractors. Homeowners could access no down payment loans that they could repay on their utility bill.  About 5000 homes have been improved, thanks to the mix of incentives, loans and individual investments.

Solarize Portland. Photo Credit: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Solarize Portland. Photo Credit: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

In the ‘90s and early 2000s, we had a similar effort for multi-family housing. The city Energy Office was the marketing arm for local utilities.  The result was energy efficiency improvements in more than 40,000 apartments.

Recycling is another big win. Four years ago, we changed the curbside collection system for residents. Now — recycling, yard debris and food waste are collected weekly, but garbage is picked up only every other week. Practically overnight we reduced single-family waste headed to the landfill by 37%. The total recycling rate is now 70% for all commercial and residential solid waste.

What were some of the major challenges?

A major recent challenge has been the recession. Oregon tends to stall first and recover last. But when we recover, we recover stronger.  Also, it’s hard to get upfront dollars to do this long-range work, so funding is a major challenge.

The City has limited dollars to dedicate to long-term impacts versus immediate needs — like taking care of our kids, public safety and parks – the work that all cities need to do.

Were there any unexpected progress or obstacles and how did those relate to implementing the strategy?

The every-other-week garbage pick-up felt like a big risk. But once we did it, it achieved great results fast.

There’s also been impressive leadership from local businesses. We work with 1000 businesses every year in an effort called “Sustainability at Work.” Businesses love it. Companies in Portland want to do the right thing while they make money and make their business more competitive.

Another somewhat unexpected result of our work is that since we started focusing quite early on climate change, green building, energy efficiency, etc  we had companies – designers, engineers, inventors, problem-solvers – coming up with all kinds of solutions locally. Now, those people are selling the solutions they developed here to the rest of the world. We have hundreds of companies that are providing sustainable technologies and services to everyone else. Whether it’s a green building design, or storm water management, or recycling/waste reduction solution – this sector is now one of the cornerstones in our economic development strategies.

What is it about Portland’s society or culture that enables it to be in the lead on planning issues like this?

The Willamette River. Photo Credit: Oregon Country Trails

The Willamette River. Photo Credit: Oregon Country Trails

In Portland you can look in any direction and see incredible nature. Mt Hood is in the distance. The Willamette and Columbia Rivers run through town. There’s so much green and trees and beauty everywhere. Part of the culture is that we want to protect the beauty we have around us. That ethic has been around since the 60’s and 70’s.

Also, in the 70’s there was a state-wide land use planning effort. Oregon set state-wide planning goals and every city had to meet those goals. Because of that, there’s a powerful desire to protect farm and forest land and balance the environmental and economic goals. Energy efficiency was even part of that early planning in the 70s.

Where does Portland look outside of itself for inspiration and new ideas?

For years, we’ve had an informal information exchange with cities all over the world. We look to Copenhagen, Oslo, and several cities in Germany. In the US, we look to cities like San Francisco, Seattle, Austin, New York, Boston and Boulder. We trade ideas constantly.

We made that exchange of ideas more formal recently with the Urban Sustainability Directors Network. And, we just started the Carbon Neutral Cities group which includes 17 cities internationally that have adopted goals to reduce carbon emissions by 80% or more by 2050.

What challenges do you see coming in the next 5-10 years in meeting the benchmarks set in the city’s Climate Action Plan?

Photo Credit: The Charger Bulletin

Photo Credit: The Charger Bulletin

The sense of urgency is different now. We can’t move along slowly anymore. But, the issue still has to compete against all our other every day concerns, like employment, education, decaying infrastructure, childcare, transportation needs, public safety and air/water quality.

Since we created the first plan in 1993, Portland has grown immensely as a city, yet we have managed to reduce carbon emissions by 14% citywide, and per capita, we’re down 35%.

We’ve shown that you can grow a local economy while downsizing your carbon emissions.

We’ve added thousands of jobs while reducing our carbon footprint. Now, we need to take some big leaps forward.  And that means making major shifts to renewable energy, significant improvements in new construction to net-zero energy buildings, better transit, land use planning that supports walking and biking, reducing our total amount of consumption, and reusing, recycling or composting as much of our waste as possible.

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Susan Anderson’s contributions incorporating climate change adaption strategies into other areas of planning in the past – including air quality, transportation, and land-use – has resulted in a present Portland that is more prepared to face the global climate change impacts of the future.

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San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project: Growing fresh communities

This week as we start our series exploring projects and ideas related to sustainability, conservation and renewable energy that have big potential. Do you like to eat? Do you like fresh great tasting food and want to easily find it in your local community? Then you will have an appetite for this week’s interview.

What started as a group of strangers who came together to save local farm land, evolved into a new community of farming and local food enthusiasts. From this group, the idea for a collective local food and farming network in San Diego County began to grow, resulting in The San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project. For nearly 15 years, the project has provided a range of classes for all ages, volunteer opportunities and social events to residents across the county. With a recently renewed lease on their Tijuana River Valley Regional Park farm, the project is looking forward to the expanding their work and mission in the next year.

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

We welcome Mel Lions, Director of San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project. He shares the history of the project, its current efforts and what we can continue to look forward to from the project (in addition to tasty, fresh, locally grown food). We welcome his insights.

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How did the idea for San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project originate?
In December 2000, a local farmer called a group of his friends together to inform us that the land he’d been renting was going on the market, that a developer was interested in turning the rich farmland into a gated polo field surrounded by mansions. Instead, our friend proposed that the community buy the land to preserve it as farmland. The farmer was using about four acres out of 160, most of which was growing hay. The land had ample well water, had only ever been farmed, and enjoyed deep, rich soil. We didn’t know each other but we knew him and the delicious food he was able to grow, and decided this was a worthwhile effort.

We were enthusiastic and idealistic, but had no formal organization, no business plan, and mostly no idea that we had little chance of raising $8 million in a short amount of time. But because we were clueless, we tried. We developed a concept to take the 160 acres and install a variety of agricultural ventures — including row and field crops, dairy and eggs, grains and pasture — to unite the various operations into a cooperative venture, and use the entire operation as a place to train the next generation of farmers.

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

As we went around the community urging people to “buy the farm!” the most common response we got was, “Why? Why should I give you money from my pocket to do that?” While the local food movement was awakening in other cities around the country, we discovered that it did not exist in San Diego in the year 2001, and we ultimately failed to buy the land.

But over those two years of effort we had grown to like each other. We found we worked well together, that the cause was worthy, and decided that we were the ones to instigate the local-food movement for San Diego. We reorganized as an educational group, going all over town showing free movies about food and then leading discussions, setting up tables at local events, talking to many thousands of people about the importance of local farms to our community’s health, economy and environment. We grew our membership and expanded our outreach, and then gave ourselves a name that encapsulated our work: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project. We were now a thing.

Our theme this month is projects and ideas that may be on a smaller scale but have the potential to have a big impact. What is the big idea your project is promoting?
We want to see food growing where we live: in our yards, our places of worship, our schools, and in the fertile fields surrounding our cities. Before the onset of the globalized food system in the 1990s, for ten millennia most food was grown in or near a city or town. Food grown where we live needs far less petroleum inputs to get to market, is picked for flavor and nutrition instead of for how it holds up to transportation, is better tasting and more nutritious, and supports the local economy rather than some mega-agribusiness that doesn’t live here.

Food is one of our primary connections to the environment; how we choose to eat food has a huge effect on the soil, water and atmosphere. Industrial food production is one of the most environmentally destructive industries. So we teach people how to grow food right here — from the small, backyard scale to small-scale farming — and empower them to take back control of their food from global agribusiness, to enjoy eating the most delicious and nutritious food around, and to marvel at the wonders of soil and nature and our relationship to all that lives. This would take us back to the way we once grew food and would have a tremendous effect on the environment. And our food would taste better too!

What are some of the ways your project works to encourage the growth and consumption of regional food?
We have two primary programs: Victory Gardens San Diego, where we teach people how to grow food in their yards, schools, and community spaces; and Wild Willow Farm & Education Center where we teach small-scale farming and serve as a community hub for local foodies. At Wild Willow Farm, we offer classes for adults on the fundamentals of growing food, and workshops on many topics from beekeeping to food preservation. We offer field trips to students of all ages, where we give hands-on lessons on topics ranging from the earthworm life cycle, how to make a school garden, cooking (and eating!) demonstrations, and tie agricultural ideas into science, math, and art.

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Our website serves as a resource for people who are looking to support local food, offering lists of local farmers markets, small-farm CSAs, restaurants that feature local food, community groups with a food focus, and generally helping people who are looking to make a locally based change in their eating lifestyle.

 San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project started 14 years ago. What have been some of the biggest challenges and successes you have had to date?
Needing to raise $8 million in a couple years was a challenge, that’s for sure! But that failure only clarified the need and steeled our determination to be a force for change. Certainly gathering a group of people durable enough and determined to take this work on has been a challenge, but by keeping the purpose front and center, by being persistent and not giving up, and working hard to say “yes” as much as possible, opportunities opened up and we’ve found a solid team committed to make it work. After ten years as a volunteer group, people now have meaningful jobs with us.

Other primary hurdles have been bureaucratic: figuring out and meeting all the legal and regulatory requirements that have presented themselves. This has included forming a corporation, getting non-profit status, facing the myriad rules of small business, employment law, farming regulations, and leasing land. Dealing with these remains a full-time, non-agricultural job.

Our successes can be witnessed in the community of people who gather with us to grow food and collectively build the world we want to live in. Where there was once a handful of strangers, now there are hundreds — thousands — of people who have been affected by our message and efforts.

Credit: Roman-Photography/San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Credit: Roman-Photography/San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

How does our community benefit when we buy and eat locally grown food?
Nature has a wondrous way of providing peak nutrition at the moment of peak flavor. Our food is more enjoyable and nutritious when we eat something picked for flavor rather than for profit. When we buy produce at a farmers market where there is no middle-man, the farmer gets a bigger piece of the pie and is more likely to spend that money back in the local economy, where it circulates (like blood!) and supports other local businesses; whereas most of the money spent at a supermarket supports an industrial food chain of which the farmer gets the littlest and last share. Plus farmers markets are vibrant community hubs where you can interact with your neighbors in unexpected ways and help bring the community alive.

Growing food in your front yard gives you instant connection to the people in your neighborhood, who will stop and engage with you, ask questions, give advice. I guarantee you can grow enough food to give away to your neighbors, strengthening your connection with those who live around you.

In the history of humanity, in every culture in the world, we’ve always celebrated our culture milestones with food. Every time we gather for any occasion, whether religious or secular, for births, rights of passage, marriage or death, there is food. Isn’t it a validation of the importance of our culture when we prepare and share the best of what we have, rather than what is the cheapest and most convenient?

San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project just signed a lease with the County of San Diego Department of Parks and Recreation to continue to farm and teach in the Tijuana River Valley Regional Park for the next five years. This area is home to your project’s Wild Willow Farm and Education Center. Can you tell our readers more about what happens at Wild Willow Farm?
There are three cornerstones in Wild Willow Farm’s structure: Agriculture, Education and Community. Each of these interact to create a vibrant and growing network of citizens who are activated to create a more vital and connected food network for our region.

During the week at Wild Willow Farm, we have farm-school students learning basic farming skills from our talented teaching staff. Every Saturday we host farm-school classes, open volunteering, and community events. Once a month from March through October, we host a free open house/potluck, with farm and nature tours, yoga, local musicians, specialty classes, and of course food, including delicious farm-fresh pizza on sourdough crust cooked in our wood-fired oven. As the sun goes down we light a fire in our cob bonfire ring and invite everyone to pound a drum and dance, and celebrate the connections offered by our community.

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

Credit: San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project

What types of educational classes and events does your organization offer?
Most of our work centers on education and community building. Toward those ends we offer home-gardening courses through our Victory Gardens San Diego program. These are usually three weekend classes at people’s homes. It’s a hands-on approach that takes novices through every vital stage in growing food, with the homeowner getting a garden built in their yard.

At Wild Willow Farm & Education Center, we offer year-round courses in small-scale sustainable farming, teaching at levels from basic to advanced in our School for Sustainable Farming. Every Saturday we invite the public to volunteer on the farm and get hands-on experience while enjoying fresh air and good food, all while connecting with interesting and engaging people.

At the farm we offer periodic classes in subjects ranging from beekeeping to fruit-tree care, fermentation to medicinal herbs. We host social events and monthly community gatherings to celebrate and network with people who understand the importance that good food has in creating an enjoyable, delicious and meaningful life.

 How does your project engage and inform the public about its efforts? What tools and methods do you use?
Our primary outreach is via our website, social media and our periodic newsletter. Because we’ve been around for a while, we’ve got friends and partners all over San Diego, and this network offers us a broad reach into our market. Now that we’ve established our farm and gotten a new lease, we expect to do further outreach to local print and broadcast media as well.

The Farmers Market in the Little Italy Community of San Diego, CA. (Credit:

The Farmers Market in the Little Italy Community of San Diego, CA.

Your organization helps people find locally grown food in San Diego County. Your website provides a list of restaurants, organic markets, farmers markets, farm stands, wholesale distributors, etc. Is not being able to find locally grown food a common complaint you hear? Why do you think it difficult for people to find locally grown food?
It used to be, but not so much any more! But every day there are folks just entering the local food scene, and by listing resources we give them a hand up. Also, more restaurants are offering locally sourced ingredients and we want to encourage them by giving them free promotion for taking that leap. The more restaurants and markets that serve or sell locally grown food, the more people are exposed to the local food concept.

There are some structural issues that would make access to local food easier, such as reinstitution of a local food hub where local farmers could aggregate their products so more restaurants and markets could source locally grown produce. A couple decades ago, downtown San Diego had a number of produce wholesalers who purchased food from local farmers, but this system was abandoned and replaced by larger, Los Angeles-based food distribution centers. So now, even food that is grown in San Diego and consumed here has probably been to Los Angeles and back!

This movement is all about connections. Helping get people connected to where their food comes from remains one of our primary purposes.

What’s next for San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project? What should people look forward to on the horizon?
We intend to keep expanding our work: offering more classes, connecting to more school kids, expanding our farm, adding depth to our efforts. The difference between gardening and farming is that farming is a business, so in 2015 we’ll be offering advanced farming courses in the Business of Farming, teaching classes in production planning, regulatory and certification requirements for small farmers, employment issues, and other non-horticultural necessities of farming.

We’re working to do more outreach to local schools, helping mentor school gardens and nutrition programs, and offering after-school programs at the farm to give students a healthy, outdoor activity to meet their service-learning requirements.

Because Wild Willow Farm is in a park where we’re not allowed live, longer range we’d like to get land of our own where we can live and grow our farm school — the only one in Southern California, and one of the few in the country that offer year-round growing — and offer staff and student residency and community-building programs. This is perhaps a refined echo of our original effort that failed.

How can San Diegans get involved in the San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project? Are there other projects or networks like yours nationally that you can share with our readers in other parts of the country?
We invite everyone to come to the farm every Saturday and volunteer and get their hands dirty. We host events throughout the year, so keep checking our website or sign up for our newsletter to stay informed about what we’re doing. During the warm months (March – October), we host a free community open house/potluck where you can enjoy a unique experience and meet a lot of people involved in this movement.

While we are an entirely local organization, there are organizations and efforts springing up all over the country — too many to name — so the best bet would be to meet people at your local farmers market or search the web for sustainable food in your area. “Foodies” by nature are gregarious and interesting, and I promise that by connecting to your local food network, you will be enjoying the most fabulous and delicious food!

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We hope this interview left you hungry for more. Click here to learn more about the San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project and to find locally grown food across San Diego County.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.
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One step closer to flying the friendly rails of California

Traveling across our country’s most populated state is on track to get a lot easier in the coming years. This week as we continue our series on BIG projects, we feature the much anticipated California High-Speed Rail project. One of the biggest projects in our state, the multi-billion dollar California High-Speed Rail took a big step forward this past summer when it moved from the design phase into the initial construction of the first segment of its first phase from Fresno to Madera.

Using clean renewable energy, the California High-Speed Rail will provide an alternative transportation choice that will help keep the state’s booming projected population growth moving, while preserving its natural environment and working towards its carbon emission reduction goals. Riding the California High-Speed Rail will help remove cars from the state’s already congested freeways helping to reduce emissions and the need to expand these highways and construct new airport runways and terminals to accommodate for more capacity.

An artist's conception of the California High-Speed Rail. (Credit: California High-Speed Rail)

An artist’s conception of a California High-Speed Rail car.
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail)

When complete, the California High-Speed Rail will whisk passengers along the rail line between the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles Basin (and eventually from Sacramento south to San Diego) at speeds over 200 m.p.h. But travel times aren’t the only thing the project is speeding up. It is also helping to speed up the state’s economy by providing thousands of new jobs for Californians in construction, operations, maintenance and the transit oriented development businesses that will spring up near the stations along the route. It is also responsible for significant investments in improving existing rail infrastructure across the state.

As with any mega project, the California High-Speed Rail has had its fair share of critics, but it hopes to win over the opposition and follow in the foot steps of other great Californian transformative projects that were also once criticized (Golden Gate Bridge, anyone?).

This week as we continue our series on BIG projects, we invite you to come “all aboard” as we hear from Michelle Boehm, Southern California Regional Director, California High-Speed Rail Authority. Ms. Boehm talks about the project’s challenges and successes to date, what the project is doing to keep the public informed and up to date on its progress, and what future riders can look forward to. We welcome her insights.

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California Governor Jerry Brown signing  S.B. 1029 at Los Angeles' Union Station. (Credit: The California High Speed Rail Authority's  Instagram account)

California Governor Jerry Brown signing S.B. 1029 at Los Angeles Union Station.
(Credit: The California High-Speed Rail Authority’s Instagram account)

When did the idea for a high-speed rail across California originate and how did the project gain momentum?
The idea for high-speed rail across California actually began back in the 1970s during Governor Jerry Brown’s first two terms as California’s Governor. As you may already know, Japan has enjoyed high-speed rail since 1964 and just celebrated the 50th anniversary of its Shinkansen Bullet Train. Countries in Europe including France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, Russia and the United Kingdom (today all connected as part of a Trans-European high speed rail network), and Asia including China, South Korea and Taiwan soon followed suit by developing their own high-speed rail systems.

The California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority) was created in 1996 and the program gained momentum in November 2008 when California voters passed Proposition 1A, the $9.95 billion bond measure to help fund high-speed rail in California. Another milestone was in 2012 when California’s Legislature passed Senate Bill (SB) 1029. This appropriated $3.3 billion of federal grant funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and $4.7 billion of Prop 1A funds for the high-speed rail program.

In June 2014, California’s Legislature approved the 2014-2015 Budget which allocates $250 million of cap and trade proceeds and 25 percent annually of all future cap and trade proceeds for high-speed rail. These steady streams of funding have helped accelerate the program and allow the Authority to build the project concurrently in various parts of the state.

Has the project’s vision and mission changed over time?
While the method by which the high-speed rail program has been implemented has changed since the initial project description, the Authority’s vision and mission has remained consistent: to build a transformative high-speed rail program that connects California’s major population centers and economies with a fast, clean mode of transportation.

As outlined in Proposition 1A, the system will zip passengers from San Francisco to the Los Angeles Basin in under three hours, at speeds of more than 200 mph. In addition to bringing the various regions of the state together, the high-speed rail system will also help reduce California’s traffic congestion, reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and discourage urban sprawl through the development of station communities and transit orientated development. California’s population is estimated to reach 50 million by 2050, and the cost of adding to the state’s existing infrastructure by simply building more airport runways and highways is estimated to be more than twice the cost of building the high-speed rail system. Building high-speed rail isn’t a luxury, but it’s a necessity to prepare for the future.

Credit: California High Speed Rail Authority Facebook Page.

Credit: California High-Speed Rail Authority Facebook Page

What public involvement methods have been the most helpful to explaining the purpose and need of the project early on?
In the last two years, the Authority has been committed to hosting public community meetings throughout the state. This allows residents that may be impacted by the program or are simply seeking an update on progress to ask questions of our engineering, environmental and other experts. Just this past August, the Authority hosted seven public scoping meetings in the Palmdale to Burbank and Burbank to Los Angeles Project Sections. The purpose was to gather official public comments about various proposed alignments and high-speed rail stations that will be considered in our environmental studies in the Southern California region moving forward.

In addition, the Authority has regional offices in Fresno, San Jose and Los Angeles and outreach teams that meet regularly with local stakeholders and the public. Authority staff members often speak at transportation, environmental and small business events and workshops throughout the state to educate the public about our program and the many job opportunities available.

In the past year, the Authority has undertaken an outreach strategy that targets Millennials and focuses on college and university outreach. Senior staff members including CEO Jeff Morales have spoken to students in fields that are related to high-speed rail implementation (engineering, planning, transportation, environmental policy, public policy). Through these talks, the Authority has encouraged Millennials to get involved, via social media, and spread the latest news and updates regarding the high-speed rail program.

Construction jobs are only one of many types of jobs the California High Speed Rail will create in the state.  (Credit: California High Speed Rail Facebook Page)

Construction jobs are only one of many types of jobs the California High-Speed Rail will create in the state.
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail Facebook Page)

What do you consider the California High-Speed Rail Authority’s biggest success to date?
Putting Californians to work, especially in the Central Valley, is one of the Authority’s biggest successes to date. The Central Valley has been particularly slow to recover from the national recession, and the construction industry faces more than 30 percent unemployment. High-speed rail construction will create 20,000 construction jobs annually for the next five years. These jobs will go to the people who need them the most and provide a significant boost to California’s economy as a whole.

As of June 30, 2014, there are 156 certified small businesses and 832 full-time workers involved in the high-speed rail program. There are also 21 certified Disabled Veteran Business Enterprises working on the program right now. The Authority has an aggressive 30 percent Small Business participation goal in the program, which includes a 10 percent Disadvantaged Business Enterprise goal and a 3 percent Disabled Veteran Business Enterprise goal.

This is only the beginning. As high-speed rail continues to expand service from the Bay Area to the Los Angeles Basin, it will generate an additional estimated 67,000 jobs annually for 15 years. The jobs won’t only be in the construction industry, but high-speed rail will promote growth in several other sectors. Permanent public and private sector employees will be responsible for operating and maintaining the high-speed rail system. In addition, there will be restaurants, shops, etc. that will be built around future high-speed rail stations.

The California High-Speed Rail project finally began preliminary construction after years of planning and contention. What was the biggest challenge to moving forward and how was it overcome?
All big projects face controversy. The Golden Gate Bridge faced more than 2,000 lawsuits in its time and was termed the “upside-down rat trap that will mar the beauty of the bay.” BART was once called the “train to nowhere.” And the California State Water System and the University of California System were both passed with single-vote margins. Where would we be without these transformative projects?

Demolition of the Old Del Monte Plant in Downtown Fresno. (Credit: California High Speed Rail Authority)

Demolition of the Old Del Monte Plant in Downtown Fresno.
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail Authority)

The Authority is beefing up our staff in the Central Valley, where construction began this summer with the demolition of buildings in Fresno. Crews continue to run tests on soil, concrete, rebar and asphalt to determine where to locate bridges, embankments and other high-speed rail structures. They’re also relocating utilities and doing abatement work which will make old abandoned buildings safe to demolish.

In light of all this activity, we are meeting and working with local communities to keep them updated on our progress. Our Central Valley office, located in Fresno, is at the center of work being done. They receive inquiries every day from the public, media, elected officials and property owners who want to be kept updated on the project or will be personally impacted. Staff in the Fresno office is committed to working with members of the public to ensure that the construction process moves forward as smoothly as possible.

The first stretch of construction will be between Fresno and Madera. What are some challenges that this area presents?
With any major infrastructure project, there will be the normal challenges associated with construction. The design-build team, Tutor Perini/Zachry/Parsons (TPZP), A Joint Venture, continues to move forward with completing project design, acquiring permits, relocating utilities and meeting with stakeholders to start the civil engineering work that will provide the foundation for the future high-speed rail.

The Authority has also entered into an agreement with the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) to ensure that all emissions created during construction activities do not negatively impact local communities. This is being done through a series of voluntary emissions reduction agreement (VERA) that include a commitment by the Authority to recycle steel and concrete from demolitions and to use only Tier IV construction diesel vehicles while building the high-speed rail program. Tier IV diesel vehicles are the cleanest and most energy efficient construction vehicles available. The Authority is also partnering with SJVAPCD to purchase electric and efficient motors to replace existing irrigation pumps and engines, including in school buses, throughout the region.

The first segment of construction will take place between Fresno to Madera. (Credit: California High-Speed Rail)

The first segment of construction will take place between Fresno to Madera.
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail)

How do you keep the public informed during construction? What communication methods and tools do you use?
The Authority is committed to keeping people informed about how the high-speed rail program will impact them. The Central Valley office, led by the Regional Director, is responsible for working with members of the public and the media to make sure that they are aware and informed. Within this office, there are engineers, right-of-way agents, planners, communications and other staff that cover a wide range of topics and are available to meet with stakeholders.

The design-build contractor (TPZP) and the Authority are partnering to keep members of the public up to date on how construction activities may impact them. This includes construction and traffic alerts that are issued when major construction is happening, community events that are held in regions that will be impacted by future construction and media events and outreach to the public.

The Authority also sends press releases and advisories to the media and to its stakeholders via email. The Authority’s website contains all the latest news and updates as well as information about our ongoing construction, traffic alerts, board meetings, public meetings, etc. The public can also email us, write us a letter or give us a call at any time.


Credit: California High-Speed Rail Facebook Page

Cost is always a sore subject with mega projects. What strategies help the most to explain or prove the future value of the infrastructure?
High-speed rail is the most cost-effective method of transportation that will not only accommodate California’s population boom, but it will help preserve farmland and the environment. Los Angeles to San Francisco is the busiest short-haul market in the country. One out of six flights heads out of Los Angeles to the Bay Area. High-speed rail fills a gap in California’s infrastructure. According to Caltrans, it would cost $158 billion to build 4,300 new highway lane miles, 115 new additional airport gates and 4 new runway terminals that are needed for California’s growing population.

High-speed rail is using clean and renewable energy to connect the state’s population centers. We’re not asking people to stop taking flights or stop driving their cars. We’re simply providing another mode of transportation that will help preserve our environment and meet California’s population growth. In many other countries like Spain and France, there’s been a big transportation shift after high-speed rail systems were built. More people are using high-speed rail than driving or flying in between major cities. This has resulted in a major reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and fuel used to make the same trip by plane or car.

Can you estimate how many jobs will be created as part of Phase 1 of the California High-Speed Rail? What about after the entire project is complete and operating?
Once the Initial Operating Section (IOS) is completed, high-speed rail is estimated to generate 57,000 construction jobs annually for nine years. When Phase 1 of the project is completed, it’s estimated to create 67,000 construction jobs annually for 15 years. Currently, we do not have job estimates for Phase 2, but as you can imagine, that would create tens of thousands of more jobs throughout the state. As mentioned previously, high-speed rail will also be creating jobs in other sectors like operation, maintenance, commercial and retail.

Today in the Central Valley, small businesses are already working on the high-speed program and growing their companies as a result.

Kroeker, Inc. is a woman-owned certified Small Business Enterprise (SBE) based in Fresno that is contracted to do demolition work. Owner Jill Kroeker says the funds her company is earning through this contract has allowed her to grow and expand her company. Specifically, she reports that this spring, she moved her company into a larger office in Clovis and has been able to hire a project manager. She plans to hire more employees as the job progresses.

Another example is Fontana-based Martinez Steel. They are a certified Hispanic Owned Micro-Business (MB) and certified Disad­vantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) owned by husband and wife Joe and Debbie Martinez. Their company has been contracted to provide rebar for the first 29 miles of construction.  Debbie tells us her company was hit hard by the recession but this new contract has really turned things around. They’ve been able to hire 50 to 60 new workers to work on the high-speed program.

We are still years away from the completion of the California High-Speed Rail, but what are some of the benefits the public has to look forward to?
With the passage of Senate Bill 1029 in 2012 by Governor Brown and the California Legislature, the Authority has already invested in a number of connectivity projects across the state that will upgrade and improve local rail transit services. SB 1029 invests almost $2 billion of Prop 1A funds into transit, commuter and intercity rail projects across California. This funding will leverage approximately $5 billion in additional funding for these projects.

One of these projects is the Metro Connector Project in LA County, which just held its groundbreaking ceremony in Little Tokyo on Sept. 30, 2014. The 1.9-mile subway project will tie the existing Blue Line, Expo Line and Gold Line with tracks between 7th/Metro Center and Little Tokyo. For the first time, passengers will be able to travel from Long Beach to Azusa or from East LA to Santa Monica, without changing trains. This $1.4 billion project is set to open in 2020.

An artist conception of a California High Speed Rail station (Credit: California High Speed Rail Authority)

An artist conception of a California High-Speed Rail station
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail Authority)

The Authority is also investing in the Southern California Regional Interconnector Project (SCRIP) at Los Angeles Union Station. This project would create run through tracks, allowing trains to make a loop instead of having to back in and out in its current configuration. This will increase train capacity by 40 to 50 percent and reduce commuter travel times and greenhouse gas emissions. The $350 million project is expected to be completed by December 2019.

In San Diego County, the Authority is investing millions of dollars to improve grade crossings, tracks and signaling for the Trolley system. We are also investing in Positive Train Control for the North County Transit District. This is an advanced signaling system that will track the location of trains to avoid collisions.

In the Bay Area, the Authority is electrifying the Caltrain Corridor that will replace diesel trains and connect the system with high-speed rail. This will result in cleaner, faster travel.

These are just a few of the transit projects the Authority is funding and improving to make rail passenger service better and faster throughout the state.

The public will also see environmental benefits with these connectivity projects moving forward in the short term. More efficient, electric trains will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air particulates. As more people get out of their cars and into mass transit, this will result in a reduction of vehicles on the roads. Once high-speed rail is fully operational by 2030, the reduction in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) will be like removing the capacity of one 500-mile lane of cars.

The Central Valley will also be the first region in the state where the Authority will be implementing an urban forestry program. In the next several years, the Authority will work with local stakeholders to plant 10,000 trees in the region. These trees will help offset construction emissions, provide shade and beautify the surroundings. The Authority is also committed to protecting important farmland in the region and is partnering with the California Department of Conservation to purchase property from willing sellers to protect that land permanently from future development. What that means is that for every acre that will be utilized by the high-speed rail project, one acre will be preserved forever.

Members of the Fresno County Economic Development Corporation staff at a "Careers in Construction" workshop showing their support for the California High Speed Rail by participating in the #Iwillride campaign. (Credit: California High Speed Rail Facebook page)

Members of the Fresno County Economic Development Corporation staff at a “Careers in Construction” workshop showing their support for the California High-Speed Rail by participating in the #Iwillride campaign.
(Credit: California High-Speed Rail Facebook page)

What are some ways our readers can support more high-speed rail in the U.S.?
Readers can follow the progress of California’s high-speed rail program through our social media sites. We’re constantly updating our progress through Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and now Instagram. We’re also using the social media sites to update Californians on jobs, regional transportation upgrades, and how cities and regions can use transit oriented development to encourage healthier and smarter planned communities.

We encourage supporters of high-speed rail to join our #Iwillride social media campaign. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube and use the #Iwillride to post stories, pictures and videos about high-speed rail, riding mass transit, etc.

In addition, you can write to your local representatives and newspapers about why high-speed rail is important and needed in California. And finally, take local transit when available and encourage your family and friends to do the same. It’s tough to convince Californians to get out of their cars and use mass transit, but getting one car off the road adds up when thousands of people do it.

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Will you ride the California High-Speed Rail when it’s complete? Share your thoughts on the BIG project with us.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.


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London’s Olympic Sized Legacy

In 2012, the eyes of the world were on London. You along with 215 million viewers watched the world’s top athletes compete in the Summer Olympic Games in hopes of bringing sports highest honor back to their home country. To host the summer games, the City of London transformed 560-acres of industrial east London into the innovative and sustainable Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.



But what happens to Olympic Parks after the medals are won, the athletes have returned home and the fanfare is over?  These big investments can financially burden a city and draw criticism from its residents. In the case of London, advanced planning is allowing this Olympic Park to transform into a state-of-the-art facility for sports, arts, culture, entertainment, education, and day-to-day life. The Park will continue on as a world class sporting facility, and it will also include new residential housing that will make up five new neighborhoods, recreation facilities, and cultural and event quadrants all surrounded by the natural beauty of waterways and parklands. Constructed with sustainability at its heart, Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park goes beyond incorporating sustainability into its design and construction. The Park promotes a sustainable lifestyle with ample and easily accessible opportunities for walking and bicycling.

One year to the day of the 2012 summer Olympic opening ceremony, Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park had another opening to celebrate – the opening of the north of the Park segment. This established the Park as a destination for residents and visitors alike and a staple in the city’s community landscape. The Park continues to inspire the Olympic spirit in the city long after the flame has moved on to Rio de Janeiro and future host cities.

Today, as we continue our series on the world’s BIG projects, we hear from Mark Camley, Executive Director of Park Operations and Venues at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and the London Legacy Development Corporation. He tells us how planning, flexibility and public input have been key to the Park’s success and shares what residents and visitors have to look forward to as the Park continues to progress. We welcome his insights.

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How did the decision to use the Olympic Park as a public space come to fruition? Were there any other contending ideas for ways to reuse the Olympic park?
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is much more than just a public space. It offers the best in sporting and cultural amenities while at the same time will offer people places to live, work and learn. The obvious legacy of the London 2012 Games was to secure the future of the permanent venues at the Park. This has been achieved and of the five sporting venues at the Park, four of them are already being used by both local communities and elite athletes, with the fifth, the Stadium, set to open for five matches of the Rugby World Cup in 2015. The Park will also be the location of up to 6,800 new homes across five new neighbourhoods where new nurseries, community centres, schools and health facilities are also being constructed. As well as this a new cultural and education quarter is planned for the Park that will see partners such as the Victoria & Albert Museum and University College London attract new visitors to the area.

London' s Queen Elizabeth II Olympic Park (Credit: London Legacy Development Corporation)

London’ s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
(Credit: London Legacy Development Corporation)

What is the vision and goal of the park?
The London Legacy Development Corporation is the body responsible for the management of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. The Legacy Corporation was formed to use the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games and the creation of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park to develop a dynamic new heart for east London, creating opportunities for local people and driving innovation and growth.

The Tumbling Playground part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park's north of the park segment. (Credit: Adventure Playground Engineers)

The Tumbling Bay Playground part of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park’s north of the park segment.
(Credit: Adventure Playground Engineers)

Did you go to the community to solicit ideas for how to use the space?
We are proud to consult local people on all aspects of the Park’s development. Consultations are held on major projects and local people are invited to contribute ideas for how the Park can shape the development of the local area. This has lead to local people coming up with the names of the Park’s five new neighbourhoods, a Legacy Youth Panel who discuss how the Park is working with the local community and we’ve worked hard with local disabled people to ensure the Park is accessible to everyone.

Were there any challenges that arose from public input? If so, how were they addressed?
The key to public engagement has been to be open and honest, and deliver on commitments. We set ourselves a challenging timescale to re-open the north of the Park just a year to the day following the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Games. Opening at 2pm on that day to visitors eager to enter the Park was a real thrill.

How was the final design chosen and what did this process look like?
The north of the Park was largely designed before London 2012. Design teams were engaged to create a new park hub, the Timber Lodge Café, and a spectacular nature based playground, the Tumbling Bay playground. Our processes required our priority themes, including local employment and engagement to be adhered to. The designs also needed to fit with the general feel of the landscape.

A conceptual simulation of a portion of New York City's Highline Park.  (Credit: Friends of the Highline)

A conceptual simulation of a portion of New York City’s Highline Park.
(Credit: Friends of the Highline)

Are there any other large public park projects that inspired the design or intention of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park?
The design of the southern part of the Park was led by James Corner Field Operations, who designed the Highline in New York. A number of the Park furniture features and the planting by Piet Oudolf mirrors the High Line. The Tumbling Bay playground in the north took some of its inspiration from the Princess Diana Memorial Playground in Kensington Gardens.

How was the progress reported to the public?
We held regular resident meetings and forums, including for our Youth Panel and Built Environment Access Panel. This enabled us to test ideas and ensure that the community were at the heart of the new landscape. More formerly, we attended various planning committees to gain permission for the work.

Have there been any lessons learned from this transformation of East London?
The three key lessons are – plan, plan, plan (and then be ready to be flexible if there are obstacles). The only way that the opening to time and budgets was achieved was through careful planning of design and testing them out with public and stakeholders.

The Arcelormittal Orbit sculpture at the Queen Elizabeth II Olympic Park. (Credit: Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park/London Legacy Development Corporation)

The Arcelormittal Orbit sculpture at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.
(Credit: Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park/London Legacy Development Corporation)

What are unique and new components of the park?
As London’s newest visitor destination, Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, is a place unlike any other. Visitors to the Park are able to enjoy beautiful parklands and waterways, world-famous sporting venues, arts and events and spectacular views from the ArcelorMittal Orbit. As a new heart for east London, the Park will also provide new homes, jobs and a cultural and education quarter. Visitors are able to enjoy world-class sporting venues that have been transformed to be used by both the local community and elite athletes, stroll in beautifully landscaped parklands, enjoy interactive water fountains and adventure playgrounds and explore free themed walking trails filled with fascinating facts about the Park.

Are there any local secrets to using the park?
The north of the Park is much quieter than the south and is home to the Timber Lodge Café a community hub nestled within the beautiful parklands. Timber-clad it both reflects and enhances the natural environment, with solar panels to produce its own green energy. There is a café which is perfect for relaxing in and flexible space for schools and community groups, and children can enjoy the Tumbling Bay Playground adjacent to the building, one of the UK’s most imaginative large-scale adventure play areas.

It is also worth noting that the Park is built around the waterways, so there are pathways and bridges at different levels, which offer different walks and different perspectives of the Park.

The ArcelorMittal Orbit, the UK’s tallest sculpture, is the highest point in the Park and provides panoramic views across the whole Park, including in to the Stadium. In contrast, the Great British Gardens are in a quiet corner and provide a small oasis of calm.

What are some sustainable features of the park?
The Park is designed with sustainability at its heart. This means that it has been built in a sustainable way and has been designed to help future visitors and residents live sustainably. It is designed to do this in a number of ways, from promoting a healthy and sustainable lifestyle which encourages walking and cycling through safe and pleasant routes across the Park, through to using green building techniques that reduce the impact of development.

A public cycling facility at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.  (Credit: David Levene via Guardian News and Media Limited)

Lee Valley Velopark at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.
(Credit: David Levene via Guardian News and Media Limited)

Once inside, what are the transportation options within the park?
We’ve worked hard to ensure that Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park really is a park for all. The Park has been designed to be as accessible and inclusive as possible for a wide range of visitors, employees and future residents. The Park is easy to walk and cycle around and has good step-free access, hard-standing surfaces, regular seating and accessible Blue Badge car parking for each of the venues. A mobility service is available to support visitors with mobility impairment and recently the Park started running boat tours to give visitors a whole new perspective of the stunning scenery.

Since it’s opening, how popular has the park been compared to projected usage?
On Friday 22 August, the Park welcomed its 3 millionth visitor since reopening on 27 July 2013. The reaction, from both local people and those from further afield, has been hugely positive, whether its children playing in the fountains and wonderful playgrounds or swimming in the wake of champions in the London Aquatics Centre.

London Aquatics Centre at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. (Credit: Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park/London Legacy Development Corporation)

The London Aquatics Centre at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.
(Credit: Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park/London Legacy Development Corporation)

How is the park maintained?
We have a Park Manager and Head of Estates and Facilities Management who look after the landscape and venues. They have produced a 10 year management plan and have already been successful in achieving a Green Flag award for the Park. As well as professional landscape staff, we have volunteers working on maintaining the gardens and parkland.

What can visitors look forward to in the future at the park?
There is so much happening and coming up at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, from local community projects to large scale events such as the Invictus Games which occurred last month (September 10-14). Transformation of the Stadium is on track to be ready for five matches of Rugby World Cup 2015 before work is completed for West Ham United to kick off in 2016. Building is underway on the Park’s first neighbourhood, Chobham Manor, with residents set to move in by late 2015 and we are also excited about the Park’s new cultural and education quarter, Olympicopolis, which will bring together a range of educational and artistic partners such as the V&A museum and UCL.

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London has set a great example for other host cities on how to re-use their Olympic size investments. Stay up to date with the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park on Facebook,  Twitter and Google+.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.

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The little street car that could….and did

The modern streetcar in Tucson, Arizona is not like any of the ones you have seen in old Hollywood movies. Remove any image of Marlon Brandon shouting “Stella” from your mind when thinking about this state-of-the-art streetcar.

While Tucson’s streetcar may not look like ones from A Streetcar Named Desire, there were a lot of big desires and hopes riding on it. Primarily the desire that it will help spur economic development and revitalize the city’s downtown.

Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation

Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation

Just a few years ago, Tucson watched Phoenix, it’s big neighbor to the north, successfully build out a new lightrail system. At this time, mass transit in the second largest city in the country’s fastest growing state (according to the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest estimates) was only a plan on paper, a vision of  the City of Tucson’s Department of Transportation and many residents.

The first real chance for the City of Tucson to install a mass transit system came when the project was added to the $2.1 billion, 20-year Regional Transportation Authority Plan approved by voters in 2006. Inclusion in the plan provided public support and the largest portion of funding, $87.7 million, for a modern streetcar. An additional $63 million in funds came from a Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant provided to the City of Tucson by the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2010. This helped close the funding gap and increase momentum on the project.

The Cadence, new University of Arizona student housing in downtown Tucson.       (Credit: Ankrom Moisan)

The Cadence, new University of Arizona student housing in downtown Tucson. (Credit: Ankrom Moisan)

Throughout it’s construction phase, Tucson watched as the modern streetcar turned desires of revitalizing the city’s funky and vintage downtown area into a reality. Developers and business owners jumped at the chance to be part of transit-oriented development and set up shop along the route, and they are still jumping. Tucson’s downtown has gained hundreds of millions of dollars in public and private investment thanks to the installation of the streetcar. Bustling, hip new restaurants, bistros, and bars now line the route, and the University of Arizona worked with developers to build new student housing downtown making it easy for students to take the streetcar to and from campus.

This past July, Sun Link – the rebranded Tucson Streetcar,  began operations, an effort 30-years in the making. Today, Sun Link runs seven days a week along the 23-stop, four-mile route that connect’s the University of Arizona, downtown business districts, entertainment venues, and the convention center. Members of the community came out in mass to celebrate the grand opening of Sun Link. The little streetcar that could saw 17,000 riders its first day of operations during a free ride promotion. A little more than two months into its operations and there are murmurs of a new desire to expand the route. Sun Link is on the right track to become an icon in Tucson’s community landscape.

Today, we continue our series on BIG projects hearing from Shellie Ginn, a Transportation Administrator for the City of Tucson’s Department of Transportation and the project manager and champion who worked on the Sun Link for the past decade. We welcome her insights.

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Looking west down Congress Street in  Tucson, AZ in the 1890's. (Credit: Tucson Historical Society)

Looking west down Congress Street in Tucson, AZ in the 1890’s.
(Credit: Tucson Historical Society)

Sun Link is a first-of-its kind transportation option for Tucson. Where did the idea for this modern streetcar originate?
First, let me remind you that we once had historic trollies running through Tucson in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. The concept of the modern streetcar was one of several options considered during an Alternatives Analysis started in 2004. The goal was to connect activity centers in the central/downtown Tucson area and provide a vehicle for economic development. Ultimately, the streetcar was selected as the mode of transportation to meet those goals.

Why was a fixed-guided electric rail system chosen over other alternative transportation systems such as a lightrail?
The streetcar was selected due to the greater economic development potential it offered to this area. Other cities such as Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington had seen a revitalization of their downtowns due to this type of transit system. We had similar activity centers and were certain we could see the same results.

The Sun Link route connects the University of Arizona, business districts, and the convention center. What other alternative routes were considered and why was its current route chosen?
The majority of the current route was in all of the alternatives considered. The areas where we had different alignments were around the University of Arizona (around vs. through?) and also how long the system would be. We looked at multiple alignments that included one on 6th Street versus 2nd Street and a longer alignment that traveled up Campbell Avenue to Grant Road. The current route was selected due to its use of roadways that were more pedestrian focused and also directly connected five districts (Mercado District, Downtown, 4th Avenue District, Main Gate District and the University of Arizona). Also, traversing through the University of Arizona campus had the greatest ridership potential.

Sun Link Route Map (Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

Sun Link Route Map
(Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

What type of community involvement was done? What aspects of the project did the community help define?
The community was involved from the beginning of the project. We developed a Citizens Liaison Group (CLG) which was made up of representatives from the neighborhoods along the alignment, business association groups in each of the districts being considered for the alignment and special interest groups such as the Tucson/Pima County Bicycle Advisory Committee and the Commission on Disability Issues. Education facilities were represented as well. This group helped review multiple technologies and alignments ultimately selecting the modern streetcar as the preferred technology and the current alignment as the preferred route.

Since Sun Link was new to the community, what type of public education efforts were undertaken?
Public Education and outreach were critical to this project and was included throughout the entire ten years this project has been in development, design, construction, testing and finally, operations. Reaching out to the public and including them in the decision making process led to a transit system that is exceeding its ridership goals and promoting economic development along the entire four-mile line. Our outreach included many presentations to stakeholders along the alignment and throughout the Tucson community, public open houses, and briefings to various leadership in the City, County, State and Federal government. Public outreach and education will be ongoing as a new group of students arrive on the University of Arizona campus each Fall Semester.

Sun Link has been credited with helping to revitalize Tucson’s downtown. How has it done this and what are some of the economic development benefits it has brought to the community?
The Tucson Streetcar has been instrumental in the location of several student housing developments along the four mile line. There are over 3,000 units along the line. There are over 50 new restaurants, bars and cafes that have opened up along the four mile line. Over $800 million of public and private investment has been made with an estimate of over 1,500 long term regional jobs created as a result of the streetcar.

An estimated 3,500 people rode Sun Link on its first paid day of operations. Has this ridership sustained? Who are the main people riding on the weekdays versus weekends?
The average weekday ridership is approximately 5,200 per day and the average weekend ridership is 2,700 (with Saturdays in the 5,000 range). There is a mix of ridership to include students, office workers, people riding in the evenings for dinner and entertainment and neighborhoods taking advantage of the streetcar to ride along the four miles.

"Wandering Stars” by artists Joe O’Connell and Blessing Hancock at the Granada Ave/Cushing Street stop. (Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

“Wandering Stars” by artists Joe O’Connell and Blessing Hancock at the Granada Ave/Cushing Street stop.
(Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

One unique aspect of the Sun Link route are the different art pieces incorporated at each of its 23 stops and its Operations and Maintenance facility. How were the artists and their pieces chosen?
The art was selected through the Tucson Pima Arts Council (TPAC). Eight stops were identified along the alignment (two per mile) and a simple stop concept and the maintenance facility were added as potential art locations as well. TPAC oversaw a public selection process and the artists were selected based on their artistic concepts through a committee.

What are the opportunities to expand the Sun Link route in the future? What would it take to do so?
Potential extensions are identified in the Pima Association of Governments High Capacity Transit Study from 2009. The next step is to start studying the potential routes and determine what funding will be used.

The Sun Link breaking the banner at it's grand opening celebration on July 25, 2014. (Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

The Sun Link breaking the banner at it’s grand opening celebration on July 25, 2014.
(Credit: City of Tucson Department of Transportation)

You served as the City of Tucson’s Project Manager for Sun Link for 10 years and guided it from conception to implementation. What was your favorite part of this project?
Over the last ten years, I was able to watch a concept become a reality and see the direct benefits of this type of system in the five districts along the streetcar alignment. My favorite part was the Grand Opening and seeing all of these people wait in long lines with smiles on their faces. It has been such a pleasure to work on a project of this stature.

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For more information on Sun Link visit, like it on Facebook, or follow it on Twitter.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.
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Harnessing the power of the sun

When you think of the Mojave Desert, two words likely come to mind – dry and hot as well as images of Joshua trees, sand dunes, and the barren aptly named Death Valley. As of last year, you can now add a sea of glimmering solar mirrors to that list. Make that a sea of more than 300,000 glimmering solar mirrors that make up the world’s largest solar thermal plant.  The Mojave Desert is now home to the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System which began commercial operation in 2013 and has been harnessing the energy of the desert sun to power homes in Southern California and reduce the state’s carbon footprint.  The clean electricity produced by the 392 megawatt solar thermal power project is also helping the state known for it’s highways and traffic congestion avoid millions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants, an equivalent to taking  more than 70,000 cars of the road annually.

The three units of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System. (Credit BrightSource Energy)

The three units of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System.
(Credit BrightSource Energy)

In addition to being the largest solar thermal plant in the world, the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System has also achieved another first. It received the 2014 Power Magazine’s Plant of the Year award, making it the first renewable energy plant to receive the honor.

The world’s largest solar thermal plant became a reality thanks to a collaborative public/private partnership between the United States Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, NRG, BrightSource Energy, Bechtel, and Google. A true testament to how these two sectors can come together on common ground to support the greater good of advancing renewable energy in our country.

Today, we kick off our annual series on BIG projects hearing from Jeff Holland, Director of Communications for NRG, the project’s owner. He fills us in on the vision and goal for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, how stakeholders and the world were kept informed of the project’s progress and the plant’s operations and economic benefit. We welcome his insights.

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The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System came to fruition through a collaboration of multiple corporate partners. Who were these players and what did they each bring to the table?
With NRG Energy’s leadership as the project owner, equity partners Google and BrightSource Energy and Bechtel’s engineering and construction expertise, the team set a new standard for solar thermal power. At the same time, we’re strengthening the nation’s economy and solar supply chain, as well as helping to shift our country closer to energy independence.

What was the overall vision and goal of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System?
The goal was for Ivanpah to become the world’s largest concentrated solar power (CSP) facility, an engineering marvel that increases America’s supply of renewable energy and one that produces clean, reliable solar electricity that will power more than 140,000 homes through California’s two largest utilities—Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). Ivanpah is a magnificent example of a public/private partnership to bring more renewable energy to our country.

Credit: A Google Earth image of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System adjacent to the Ivanpah dry lake bed. (Credit: Mojave Desert Blog)

Credit: A Google Earth image of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System adjacent to the Ivanpah dry lake bed.
(Credit: Mojave Desert Blog)

What was the rationale behind locating the solar electric plant on the Ivanpah dry lakebed? Can you describe the environmental considerations behind this choice?
This is land leased to us by the Bureau of Land Management and the lease agreement dictates that we return the land to its previously undisturbed state once the power purchase agreements expire.

As part of our ongoing environmental mitigation efforts, we are working with the appropriate state, federal and local agencies to apply science in our mitigation efforts on a wide range of carefully constructed wildlife and biological protection plans.

While we take the work we are doing very seriously and are putting the measures in place and spending the money on monitoring efforts, it is important to note that, climate change is by far the largest threat to life on earth and we have spent billions of dollars on projects like Ivanpah in our quest to find ways to provide clean, sustainable and renewable energy.

Please describe the general design of the plant and how these design standards contributed to a more sustainable project?
Ivanpah uses software to control hundreds of thousands of tracking mirrors, known as heliostats, to directly concentrate sunlight onto a boiler filled with water that sits atop a tower. When the sunlight hits the boiler, the water inside is heated and creates high temperature steam. Once produced, the steam is used in a conventional turbine to produce electricity. Using this concentrated solar thermal technology.

The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System begins operation. (Credit: BrightSource Energy)

The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System begins operation.
(Credit: BrightSource Energy)

Was any outreach conducted to engage stakeholders in the Mojave Desert area?
Of course. NRG is 100% committed to working with the communities in which we operate, and to protecting the health and safety of people, wildlife, plant life, and ecosystems in the areas in which we work.

How did you communicate the project’s progress to the rest of the world. Which communication tools did you find most effective?
We conducted community outreach by attending and speaking at various community-focused events and public hearings as well as direct mail campaigns and developing a project website where people could learn about the progress and gather information on the project’s milestones and accomplishments. We worked with the state and federal groups in developing and reporting all plans to the California Energy Commission who also continue to publish all of our information onto their own website where people can opt-in for updates as well.

Were there any challenges or barriers to receiving public support for the project? If so, how did you overcome these challenges or barriers?
We have worked closely with state and federal agencies and all relevant stakeholders from the moment we began our development of Ivanpah to responsibly address the challenges unique to Ivanpah’s size, location and technology.

As part of our ongoing environmental mitigation efforts, we are working with the appropriate state, federal and local agencies to apply science in our mitigation efforts on a wide range of carefully constructed wildlife and biological protection plans.

I think the public overwhelmingly supports clean energy projects such as Ivanpah when you factor in that it prevents the emission of 400,000 tons of carbon into the atmosphere – tantamount to removing 72,000 cars from California’s roads annually.

Construction workers secure a heliostat onto a pylon. (Credit: BrightSource Energy)

Construction workers secure a heliostat onto a pylon.
(Credit: BrightSource Energy)

Construction of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System required thousands of workers. How many people are currently employed by the plant?
At peak construction we employed more than 2,600 people on-site. The project now has 65 employees responsible for the day-to-day operations of the facility. The project also employs 25 biologists for protection and support of wildlife in addition to performing other biological work for the project. At the height of our work, we employed as many as 160 biologists on-site for our Head Start program for desert tortoises. The project provided a local infusion of $300 million in state and local tax benefits at a time when the US economy was going through the “Great Recession” and was in much need of good paying jobs. Total construction wages paid eclipsed $250 million and total employee earnings over the course of the project are expected to be more than $650 million.

How does the plant’s energy production measure up against other similar solar projects?

Ivanpah is the world’s largest solar thermal plant and approximately 100 MWs more than our Agua Caliente photovoltaic (PV) solar plant which produces 290 MWs, which is currently the nation’s largest fully-operational PV plant.

Are there any lessons learned from this project?
As with any large infrastructure improvement project there will be lessons learned. With Ivanpah, we attempted something that had never been done on this scale – and with a brand new technology. We are constantly improving our processes and efficiencies on site and learning about ways we can optimize the levels of power we are producing. We are generating massive amounts of data that will help with future projects going forward and our environmental research work has been ground-breaking for the science community.

Credit: Hotelzon

Credit: Hotelzon

This project is a great example of how corporate partners are coming together to help California to meet its greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal. What are some best practices people can do in their own homes or at work that can help contribute to meeting our state’s goal of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020?
Ivanpah is a magnificent example of a public/private partnership to bring more renewable energy to our country. Ivanpah has drawn support from the Department of Energy (DOE) and NRG due to their tremendous benefits and the hard work of the original project developers. The DOE chose to award loan guarantees to these projects to provide debt support to the original project developers based on the economic, environmental and energy security benefits those projects will bring to Americans. Because projects like this are so important, NRG invested more than a billion of its own capital to provide equity support to the projects because they offer the potential for quality returns and the ability to move clean energy forward in a meaningful way.

We are doing our part, but there are things individual consumers can do to reduce their carbon footprint in their homes. Things like installing solar rooftop systems, purchasing a programmable thermostat like Nest, changing their lighting to compact fluorescence (CFLs), weather-stripping and insulation, turning off electronics and your cable modem when not in use and buying Energy-Star-rated appliances.

Fed Ex Field in Washington D.C. (Credit NRG Energy)

Fed Ex Field in Washington D.C. has an NRG solar installation that can produce up to 2 megawatts of power. Enough power to meet 20% of the stadium’s power needs on game days and all of its power needs on non-game days.
(Credit NRG Energy)

What’s next for NRG? What projects should we be looking forward to?
The energy industry is on the cusp of a revolution and NRG is driving toward a consumer-focused future. Through innovation, the freedom of choice and the self-empowerment, the consumer will realize the enormous benefit of something our generation never experienced – energy self-determination.

NRG is bullish on renewable energy, based on ongoing improvements in the technologies and the effective commercialization of new technologies (evidenced by projects like Ivanpah) that we see continuing over the next five years.

We think solar and wind will become the clear competitive alternatives to fossil generation in the foreseeable future. Photovoltaic solar costs continue to go down, driven by a decrease in panel prices and companies like NRG working to bring down the overall balance of system cost.

In addition to our large-scale wind and solar utility projects, NRG owns high-profile distributed solar installations at several NFL stadiums, including FedEx Field in Washington, DC; MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, NJ; Patriot Place in Boston; Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia; and the new Levi’s Stadium in Santa Clara, Calif., which is LEEDs certified and will be the first U.S. professional sports venue to achieve net zero energy performance.

Lastly, NRG owns 40 MW of combined distributed solar at various commercial locations in several states, including municipal buildings, hospitals, industrial buildings, schools, universities and retail chains and also partners with notable organizations, such as MGM (Mandalay Bay) and Starwood Resorts to offer solar energy solutions to private industry.

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Solar power is all around us. Whether you live in one of the homes receiving electricity produced by the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, a student at a University, a fan cheering on your favorite NFL team in their home stadium, or a guest staying and playing at a Las Vegas resort, the power of the sun may just be helping to power these aspects of your life.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.
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“Everyone wants to write a novel, but very few people want to write the next sentence.”

Time Magazine names its “Person of the Year,” but did you know if also names its best bloggers of the year? Today, we are pleased to introduce one of the bloggers that made their 2013 list. Acclaimed author and all around lover of language Mark Forsyth is also the man behind the blog The Inky Fool.

From exploring the origins of words and phrases to guiding good grammar to the basics of correctly constructing a sentence, The Inky Fool is an enjoyable online resource for anyone interested in the English language. Forsyth uses concise and witty posts to explore everything you’ve ever wondered about the written and spoken word because he is curious about it too. Time sited his post on the hidden meanings behind the Christmas carol “Twelve Days of Christmas,” as both “shocking and shockingly obvious.” And his article  for The Telegraph on the use of the word “so” (also posted on his blog) will leave you internally debating whether the conjunction really is useless afterall.

Credit: Mark Forsyth, The Inky Fool

Credit: Mark Forsyth, The Inky Fool

Additionally, Forsyth shares his knowledge and love of etymology with readers offline in his books and other publications including: “The Etymologicon,” “The Horologicon,” “The Elements of Eloquence,” and “The Unknown Unknown.”

Today, we hear from Forsyth on how the Inky Fool got its start. He’ll share his favorite memorable phrases and why bookstores are still important in the digital age. And he’ll give advice for aspiring writers. We welcome his insights.

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Credit: rgbstock

Credit: rgbstock

How did your blog The Inky Fool start? What caused you to have the idea to launch it?
It actually wasn’t my idea – an old friend of mine suggested starting a blog on language; and for the first few months we did it together. I simply found that I enjoyed it more, and had more time to spare. She left, but it’s still named after her. You see, she can’t go within 100 yards of a fountain pen without ending up covered in ink for some reason. So I used to call her the Inky Fool. The blog is still named after her, even though everyone thinks it’s me.

The Inky Fool is dedicated to Words, Phrases, Grammar, Rhetoric and Prose. Why this focus?
It’s all about how to construct a single sentence. The important thing about the blog is that it’s never about what is said, only about how it’s being said: the beautiful words that can be used, the strange ways of phrasing things, the comical origins of the words. The important thing, is that when, for example, I’m talking about a political slogan, I never ever say whether or not I agree with it. So many people who write about language feel that that gives them the right to opine about the world, which is terribly tedious.

Credit: Blogger

Credit: Blogger

We notice that “words” are combined with phrases, grammar, rhetoric and prose. We’re focusing on words in June and July. Would you like to write a few words about words, why they are first on your list, why they matter and what’s so interesting about them from your point of view?
My favourite thing about words is the strange and funny origins, the stories behind them and the connections between them. I love the fact that ‘testament’ is related to ‘testicle,’ or that California is named after the Caliphate, or that ‘brackets’ comes from the Old French for ‘codpiece.’

What do like most about blogging?
The ability to write exactly how you want to. Most forms of writing, whether it’s newspapers, novels, or poetry, have a set style, a way of writing that’s expected of you. Blogging is young enough that these conventions haven’t had time to form. It’s perfect artistic freedom, not because you’re breaking the rules, but because there aren’t any rules there at all. It’s the new frontier.

Credit: Screen Rant, LLC

Credit: Screen Rant, LLC

Your book the Elements of Eloquence goes beyond a love for words, it discusses what makes a phrases memorable. What are some of your favorite phrases and why do think they have stood the test of time?
My favourite figure of rhetoric is diacope. Bond, James Bond. Run, Forest, run. Fly, my pretties, fly. Captain, my captain. To be, or not to be. Game over, man, game over. It’s so simple and elegant, and pretty much guarantees you a memorable line. It’s not the phrase I love so much as the formula behind it (although I do of course love the phrases). It’s great to put together great lines from across history – demonstrating how the Bible, Dickens, Gershwin and Katy Perry are all using the same trick of progressio. Putting Paul McCartney next to St Paul and saying “Look, it’s the same thing.”

Your latest publication The Unknown Unknown: Bookshops and the Delight of Not Getting What You Wanted written for Independent Booksellers Week is in some ways is an ode to a place many believe is on its way out – the bookshop. You believe bookshops are alive and well. In the age of tablets and e-books, what are some of the ways that bookstores are surviving? What does “the bookshop” represent and what’s your best case scenario for them to succeed in an increasingly online world?
The important thing about a bookshop is that you can, by chance, come across a book that you never knew existed, on a subject you had never even thought of. You can’t get that on the internet, because on the internet you need to enter your search terms. A good bookshop can expand your mind. The dangerous thing about the internet is that it can fulfil all the desires that you already have, but it can’t give you new ones. If you were always able to get food just like Mama used to make it, you’d end up eating that rubbish for the rest of your life.

What book(s) have influenced you the most as a writer?
Three Men in a Boat.

You are active on social media, which often limits our words to 140 characters or less. How do you handle this challenge?
I rather like the challenge of expressing yourself as briefly as possib

What’s ahead for you and The Inky Fool this year? What should readers look forward to?
Right at the moment, nothing. I’ve just finished the publicity tour for “The Unknown Unknown,” and I’m going to take a break. In a few days time, I’m sure I’ll get bored and start something new. But for the moment, I’ve no idea what it will be.

What advice or resources do you have for aspiring writers and word lovers?
Make sure that you love language and love writing. Everybody wants to write a novel, but very few people want to write the next sentence. Life is all about process. Everyone would like to be Wimbledon Champion (or whatever), but almost all of us would die of boredom if we were asked to play tennis eight hours a day, seven days a week. If commas aren’t your idea of fun, you’re in trouble.

Credit: Candilynn Fite

Credit: Candilynn Fite

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To fall even more in love with language visit The Inky Fool and pick up a copy of one of Forsyth’s books here. Or, take a stroll through the aisles of your local bookstore.

As the Inky Fool has showed us words and phrases have many different origins and meanings. The words you use may mean more than you know. Next up we’ll explore the origins and meanings behind some of our favorite phrases and sayings. Stay tuned to make sure you are saying what you think you are saying.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.

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Much ado about “more than”

Every profession has its tool of the trade. Carpenters are equipped with a hammer and nails. Teachers use a chalk board or smart board when they work with their students. Journalists rely on the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook. A copy of the AP Stylebook aka the “journalist’s bible” has been at every journalist’s desk since the 1950s. Today, editions are also available online and as an app on your smartphone, making it a tool just as essential to reporting the news as a pen, notebook, computer, digital recorder, or camera. So when an update or exception is made to the AP Stylebook, it becomes breaking news itself.

Earlier this year a few words caused a big uproar in the world of journalists and professional writers everywhere. The AP Stylebook changed its stance on the long debated writer’s rule of when to use “more than” and when to use “over.” The AP now says that it is okay to use “over,” as well as “more than” when referring to quantity. The twittersphere exploded over this exception both in favor and against.


Credit: AP Stylebook

Credit: AP Stylebook

Credit: Twitter user @MikeShor

Credit: Twitter user @MikeShor

Credit: Twitter user @nickjungman

Credit: Twitter user @nickjungman

The type of reaction received after making “over” and “more than” interchangeable is nothing new to the AP Stylebook co-editors. They receive countless requests for updates and exceptions to be made each year. They spend significant time and careful consideration on every update and exception that is made to the AP Stylebook, but know they can’t please everyone. As our language evolves, the writing resources we use must evolve with it. While these updates and exceptions may not always be welcome news they help all of us accurately communicate and report the news in a culture that is continually changing.

So, how are these updates and exceptions determined? Who is tasked with making such influential decisions? This is the job of our interviewee – co-editor of the AP Stylebook David Minthorn and his fellow co-editors Sally Jacobsen and Paula Froke. This week as we continue our series on Words and Words Choice, David shares with us why it is important for the AP Stylebook to evaluate and update its guidelines, typical requests for updates and exceptions that he receives, and he’ll get to the bottom of the AP’s controversial ruling mentioned above on using “over” and “more than” when referring to a quantity. We welcome his insights.

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Credit: AP Stylebook

Credit: AP Stylebook

The AP Stylebook has come to be known as the “journalist’s bible.” What was the original purpose of the AP Stylebook?
The preface for the 1953 edition states that the book “is for the guidance and benefit of those engaged in preparing the AP report.”

   The explanation that follows remains relevant today.

   “Presentation of the printed word should be accurate, consistent, pleasing to the eye and should conform to grammatical rules.

   “The English language is fluid and changes incessantly. What last year may have been very formal, next year may be loosely informal. Word combinations, slogans and phrases are being added to and becoming part of the language. Alphabetical identifications are widely accepted.

   “Because of constantly changing usage, no compilation can be called permanent. Nor can any one volume be infallible and contain all the wisdom and information of the ages. When there is doubt, consult an authoritative source and stay with it. The effort in this book has been to provide applicable examples to as many problems as space permits.”

What do you think its biggest contribution has been?
The Stylebook has evolved from that compact first edition of 60 pages primarily for newspapers to the current handbook of 500 pages covering essential writing and editing guidance and news values for all platforms of news presentation. Over the years, the AP Stylebook’s annual editions have benefited greatly from suggestions by a wide range of readers and users. In updating the Stylebook, the editors keep in mind the overriding goals of AP reporting: to be accurate, balanced, prompt, clear and concise, no matter what the news or where it happens.

How often does the AP Stylebook get updated?
AP Stylebook Online, available by annual subscription, is updated throughout the year with new terms and revisions, including amended definitions as needed. These updates are incorporated into the printed edition published each year in late May or early June.

When the AP Stylebook makes an update or exception it is breaking news. Generally, what factors are considered in determining what to update?
The overriding factors are relevance to the news and ensuring accuracy and clarity in AP news reports. Updates generally fall into three categories: New terms added  for coverage of breaking news or major issues; revised entries or guidelines to update existing terminology; and new topical sections bringing together various entries previously listed individually in the A to Z alphabetical section. Religion Guidelines added this year includes about a dozen new terms, for a total of more than 200 entries in the section.

Revised entries often generate high interest. An example this year was AP Stylebook team’s ruling that over may be used in numerical references along with more than. Previously, over was limited to spatial relationships, as in “the plane flew over the city.”  For expressing greater numerical values, more than was the approved term: e.g., Salaries went up more than $20 a week. The change permits over in such contexts: Salaries went up over $20 a week.

So over did not replace more than in referring to greater numerical value in AP Style. Rather, the terms are given equal footing in numerical references. We’re simply following dictionary definitions of the words, dropping a grammatically baseless prohibition that entered the U.S. journalistic canon in the 19th century.

Credit: New Jersey On-Line LLC

Credit: New Jersey On-Line LLC

What type of reaction does the AP Stylebook receive from journalists and other professional writers when it makes an update?
Generally two or three updates of the dozens made each year garner a lot of comment — praise and criticism. A few examples. In the 2010 Stylebook, website became one word, lowercase, reflecting popular usage. However, other terms using Web, shorthand for World Wide Web, remain unchanged with two words: e.g., Web page, Web feed. In 2011, email became one word for simplicity, an exception to other electronic terms spelled with hyphens: e-book and e-commerce. In 2012, the Stylebook amended a longtime entry to accept hopefully as a sentence adverb in line with dictionaries: Hopefully, we’ll be home before dark. In 2013, the Stylebook entry on illegal immigrant was replaced by illegal immigration: illegal refers only to an action, not a person. Also, the 2013 entry on mental illness, with guidelines on usage in stories on violent crime, was another significant update.

Two changes this year got a lot of attention. I’ve mentioned over and more than. A second change generating a lot of attention was the decision to spell out state names with cities within news stories, rather than abbreviating the state. For example, we’ll now write Madison, Wisconsin, instead of Madison, Wis. This change will ensure that location spellings conform to a common standard. Many AP stories are transmitted overseas, where U.S. state abbreviations aren’t well-known. Spelling the states clarifies these names. AP stories written overseas and sent simultaneously to U.S. domestic services  have been spelling out state names for some time.

Why is it important that the AP Stylebook evaluate and update its guidelines on a regular basis?
With the flow of daily news, new coinages, expressions and spellings involving newsmakers come into play virtually every week and sometimes more often. Some new terms have a short life and lose relevance rather quickly; others have staying power and retain lasting significance. AP Stylebook’s editors work year-round to stay abreast of evolving language and usage. Our task is to decide which terms with definitions merit inclusion in the Stylebook to help AP report the news with accuracy, speed, credibility and readability.

Credit: Oxford Dictionaries

Credit: Oxford Dictionaries

Other publications dedicated to words also make annual updates such as Merriam-Webster and Oxford Dictionaries with their “word of the year.” Does the AP Stylebook pay attention to the updates made by other publications? How much do the “words of the year” and additions in other publications influence the AP Stylebook’s updates?
The AP Stylebook’s primary reference is Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition The publishers are planning a Fifth Edition later this year. We’ll pay very close attention to updates in that dictionary. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language is our backup dictionary, along with Concise Oxford English Dictionary. We did note that “selfie” was prominently featured in the Oxford dictionary group’s 2013 words of the year. Coincidentally, the term for a self-portrait taken by a smartphone and posted on the Web was added to the online AP Stylebook and will appear in the 2014 printed edition not enclosed in quotes. While the term has been around in social media since 2004, selfie became very prominent in the news over the last 12 months as famous personalities got involved.

What are some of the more popular requests for updates and exceptions that the AP Stylebook receives?
The spelling changes to website — one word– and email — no hyphen — were a reflection of popular sentiment and common usage. Over several years, we received many requests from the public and from within the AP staff to amend those spellings. Finally the time was right, so we changed the Stylebook’s spellings to reflect reality. Those who objected probably stuck with the old spelling. It’s their right. AP Style isn’t imposed on anyone outside the AP.

As the 4th Estate moves more to online and digital mediums, are you seeing this shift reflected in the updates the AP Stylebook makes?
I mentioned the prompt updates of the AP Stylebook Online once the editors agree on a change that affects  AP’s coverage of breaking news and major issues. We encourage our staff to consult the online book, which is the most up-to-date version at any time. The printed book is a compendium of all the updates in the previous 12 months, so it’s highly useful in its own right and highly portable. Also, Stylebook Mobile is a universal iOS app for iPhones and iPads. The need for these electronic editions grows with our increasingly digitalized communications. The content of the Stylebook reflects online and digital mediums, from the expanded guidance of the social media chapter to the call each year for suggestions via

Credit: GIGAOM

Credit: GIGAOM

With the rise of online journalism and citizen reporters, do you see the AP Stylebook guidelines being lost with these non-traditional outlets?
Not at all. The Stylebook editors tweet and post daily AP Style tips. We hold monthly AP Style chats on Twitter featuring AP specialist reporters — politics, science, sports, book publishing, fashion, food, etc. All these topics have specialized vocabularies for reporters and editors in all platforms, including online and citizen reporters. Also, there’s Ask the Editor, the online Stylebook’s help site. I answer some 3,000 queries a year from Stylebook users seeking advice on writing and editing that often goes beyond specific Stylebook entries. If anything, the interest in AP Style is expanding every year.

Last year was the AP Stylebook’s 60th anniversary. This major milestone was celebrated with a print edition, which includes more than 90 new or updated entries and broadens the guidelines on social media. Where do you see the AP Stylebook headed in the next 60 years?
We’ll take it one year at a time. The public’s need for breaking news, in-depth reporting and nonpartisan analysis has never been greater. The AP Stylebook’s lexicon of terminology provides a framework for reporting the news accurately, consistently and objectively. Usage constantly evolves, new words come into the language. Language rulings from a credible and authoritative source will always be needed. The methods and devices used to convey AP Stylebook updates are certain to evolve in ways we can’t yet envision. But the basic mission outlined in 1953 remains unchanged.

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We use our copy of the AP Stylebook religiously and encourage new writers to do the same. Pick up a copy of the latest edition in print, online, or on your phone and see where it can take your writing. Or, share with us some other must have writing resources that you can’t do without.

Liz Faris, Account Manager
Collaborative Services, Inc.

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